Community involvement policy context:
Under Bolivian wildlife law, all wildlife resources whether in original form or deposits are property of the State. Local people may use wildlife resources (such as when hunting, breeding, trading, foraging etc.) when authorisation is given by the state in the forms of licenses and/or permits. Without authorization, use of wildlife resources is strictly prohibited. A portion of forests are publicly owned and others are in lands that have been granted under both private individual landholdings and collective rights for Indigenous people and agro-extractive communities. The area of forest that has formally been granted to individual and collective landholders has grown over time, and there is an ongoing process of land titling. The area of forest in the hands of communities, mainly Indigenous groups, has also grown over time due to the formalization of Indigenous community lands. About 20 million hectares have been claimed by Indigenous groups. Bolivia’s indigenous groups living in or close to forests under legislation may use forest resources/non timber forest products such as medicine, firewood, building materials, fruits, nuts and honey for their subsistence only and may not be used for commercial purposes. Indigenous people are also guaranteed the exclusivity of logging on community lands under the law.
National policy context for IWT:
Under Bolivian wildlife law (key pieces include the Environmental Law and Forest Law), there are 4 categories of wildlife crime: (1) hunting offences; (2) trading offences; (3) licencing offences; and (4) damaging offences. Penalties for such offenses include confiscation of property, revocation and suspension of licenses and/or permits, monetary fines and imprisonment terms from 1 to 10 years.
Bolivia has been party to CITES since 1979